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Biology 2018 Solutions for Leaving Cert Higher Level

You can access the paper via the examinations.ie website. No marking scheme is available at the time of writing. You may also like: Leaving Cert Biology.
Q1. (a) 1. To receive energy for cellular reactions to occur 2. For growth and repair  (b) Many sugar units joined together  (c) Cellulose  (d) Contains glycerol and three fatty acids  (e) Phospholipids are found in cell membranes  (f) Biuret test 
Q2. (a) Living factor  (b) The place where an organism lives  (c) All of the different populations living in an area  (d) All members of the same species living in an area  (e) The functional role of an organism in an ecosystem  (f) The part of the Earth that sustains life  (g) Checking for the presence or absence of an organism in an ecosystem 
Q3. (a) Interphase  (b) Cell division in which one cell becomes two cells and the number of chromosomes is retained. The genetic material of the daughter cell is identical to the mother cell.  (c)1. The chromosome number is halved in meiosis  2. Meiosis involves 2 c…

CC - I'm Not Scared, Macbeth, Death and Nightingales #625Lab

“The main characters in the text are often in conflict with the world or culture in which they inhabit”. (2009)

#625Lab. This essays is beautifully focused on the question. However, the author only zooms in on one aspect of cultural context, violence, which leads her to trivialise the real reasons for the violence. Writing a full essay on just one aspect of culture is a very ambitious undertaking and it probably won't address the question fully. A good essay would usually have 4-5 aspects (e.g. setting, gender, money, violence, community). You may also like: Complete Guide to Leaving Cert English (€). 

Across all three texts that I have studied as part of my comparative course, the central characters are seen to come into direct conflict with the worlds they inhabit in one way or another. In support of my answer I will be referencing “Death and Nightingales”(D&N) by Eugene McCabe, "Macbeth" by William Shakespeare and "I’m not scared" (INS) by Gabriele Salvatores. Throughout these three texts the central characters (Beth Winters, Macbeth, and Michele) oftentimes question, act against or come into direct conflict with aspects of the text’s cultural contexts. These conflicts of values and attitudes are often a major aspect of or fuel the central conflict of the text itself. They often reveal aspects of the central characters or the world in which they inhabit. This ultimately contributes greatly to the reader’s understanding of the text in its context.

All three texts present worlds that are dominated by violence and brutality. INS presents a world in which a desperate village on the fringe of society, will kidnap a young child in a bid for survival. In D&N both sectarian and domestic conflict and violence are key characteristics of the society presented (1800s Fermanagh). "Macbeth" showcases a world of nobility and royalty, where the battleground of war is a platform for one to prove oneself as a hero. While in "Macbeth" , Macbeth takes no apparent issue with the violence seen in the text, for Michele and Beth Winters ,of INS and D&N respectively, it is a source of contention. The opening scenes of both texts see the central characters confront the brutality of their worlds in one way or another. In INS, Michele stands up to his friends when they begin to harass another member of the group, Barbara, as a punishment for losing a race. Michele is then punished for this act of confrontation, however he is content enough to go through with his own punishment if it means justice will purvey prevail. In the opening scene of D&N, Beth does not directly take on this role, but she does subtly come into conflict with the brutality of her world. The text opens with images from Beth’s dream, in which she kills her father Billy Winters. This reflects that violence is an ordinary aspect of her life in Fermanagh and clearly one she has internalised. However, upon waking up and finding her father in a vulnerable position, she does not choose to act upon this vision. Instead she makes her way out into a field to save the life of a dying cow. This act establishes Beth as a force for good in an otherwise quite cruel world. Beth, like Michele, is a character who, due to the world she inhabits is often presented with the option to do harm. However, Beth, as we know her at the beginning of the text anyways, chooses to do what's right. This, similarly to Michele, puts her in direct conflict with a world which appears to normalise and even reward those who inflict harm.

As both texts progress, we see violence and cruelty as an aspect of the cultural context develop. In D&N, it is through the expansion of our knowledge of Beth and Cathy Winters. The introduction of Liam Ward and the presence of forces such as the IRB and sectarian conflict further add to this perspective of the world. In INS the presence of Sergio brings a new level of cruelty and abuse to the village of Aqua Traverse. Sergio is a character who will not hesitate at the idea of grotesque acts of abuse, and easily overpowers any other character he encounters. His presence in Michele’s home is evidence of the fact that Michele’s parents have invited unchecked power and violence into their lives. Michele is shown to outrightly reject Sergio’s character and what he represents, immediately feeling discomfort at his presence and never quite allowing himself to adjust to the man. This is reflective of Michele’s relationship with the cruelty and abuse of the world of the text, Michele is, after all, a character who has befriended and empathised with the child who the adults have cruelly dehumanised and mistreated.

Similarly in D&N, for the majority of the text’s progression Beth is shown to think and act against the violent aspects of her world. Her plot to run away from home is a means of cruelty and abuse that her father exerts in her home, abuse which is oftentimes used to keep her trapped firmly under his thumb. However the man that Beth is planning to runaway with, Liam Ward, is not exactly innocent. Liam is rumoured to be involved with the IRB and suggestions at his brutality are seen from his initial introduction, when he jumps on a rat to kill it without hesitation. Beth however doesn’t choose to acknowledge this aspect of his character. She very much views him as an escape from the world of cruelty she is forced to live in rather than a continuation of it. At one point her friend Mercy Boyle comments that Liam is a “bad dog” who should be put down. Beth’s response that “you’d wonder sometimes... about killin' craturs at all”, seemingly cements her position as a peaceful character. A character directly in conflict with a world in which brutality reigns supreme.

Contrastingly, the central character in the play "Macbeth" does not take issue with the violent aspect of the texts cultural contexts. In fact, he appears to revel in it, having been labelled a hero in an early scene due to his actions at war. However, there are other aspects of the world of the text that Macbeth does come into conflict with. One of the central values of the cultural context is that of nobility and the royal line of succession. Macbeth killing Duncan breaks that "natural order" of succession, therefore putting him in direct conflict with those of regality and nobility who uphold these values. Quite soon after Macbeth’s ascension to the throne we see his own friend, Banquo for example, begin to question his newly established power. This conflict leads to the majority of those in power including the natural heir to the throne, Malcolm, joining forces against Macbeth. This is a representation of Macbeth coming into conflict with the cultural context as a direct result of his actions. (This would have been a good place to discuss how Beth and Michele rebel against other societal norms. Remember that you get marks for your comparisons, not just the usual analysis of the texts.)

The conclusions of all three texts see the central characters suffer greatly as a result of their actions. Macbeth is killed on the battlefield, having relied too heavily on the prophecy of the witches and placing himself in a weaker position. The ending scene sees the coronation of the rightful heir and the restoration of the natural order of succession. Macbeth, having been the only point of conflict against the texts core values is now gone and the world of the text returns to how it was before. The endings of both D&N and INS see the central characters completely enraptured in the world of violence they had tried so valiantly to reject. Michele is shot by his father while trying to save Filippo. It is a cruel punishment that he endures as a direct result of having put himself too far in the line of fire between innocent and evil. However, his personal values appear intact, he never accepts violence as an aspect of the cultural context. That personal defiance in itself continues the conflict between the two. In contrast, the ending of D&N sees Beth in a desperate act of self defence make the choice to kill Liam Ward. There is a direct contrast between this act and the character we were introduced to at the beginning of the novel. This contrast emphasises a world so strongly effect by cruelty and brutality, that even those who try to reject it are ultimately unable to find an escape. To add to the tragedy , Beth, having become pregnant, finds herself further tied to Billy Winters, a direct perpetrator of the violence and cruelty of the world of the text.

Ultimately all three texts present worlds in which values are so strong held that even the central character’s most valiant efforts to contest them fail. In "Macbeth", Macbeth comes into direct conflict with the rest of society when he betrays strong held values of nobility and royalty, however he does maintain in conflict with these values to the bitter end. In both D&N and INS the central characters present forceful challenges to the violence and brutality of the worlds in which they inhabit. However, as in "Macbeth" these values are too well established for them to successfully defeat. (I think that saying that in INS and D&N violence is a value for its own sake would be wrong. For example, in INS it is a method to achieve financial gain.) They ultimately suffer greatly as a result of their conflicts. At the texts conclusions we find them, having failed to find the freedom and peace they had so valiantly sought out, forced to bow in the face of a greater force, the world in which they inhabit working against them.

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I'm Not Scared, Macbeth, Death and Nightingales Leaving Cert English
Michael Fassbender as Macbeth in Justin Kurzel’s 2015 film. Photograph: Allstar/DMC Film via The Guardian

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