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HPAT Practice Exam with Solutions and Guide

Our HPAT guide and practice exam with brand new, unseen questions are made by a team of Irish-trained doctors with specialist input for various sections.

Only €29 

Contents: I. Concise tips and tricks for Section I, II and III  Section I: Logical Reasoning and Problem-Solving     Approaching the 3 main types of questions (abstraction of data, dependencies, graph, multiple graphics, scientific method, pure logic principles, common pitfalls, etc)
  Section II: Interpersonal Understanding     Dealing with words you don’t fully understand, choosing between two similar answers     Unwritten rules, beliefs and assumptions of empathetic behaviour
  Section III: Non-verbal Reasoning     Discussion of the main rules (various types of series)   Tricks to do better in all sections of the HPAT     An unsafe and controversial guide to acing multiple choice questions
II. Full practice exam - with elaborate explanations

Please note  the questions are mostly hard, some are very hard, but all are designe…

Collision Theory

Collision theory

Don't miss out on the latest A1 notes and tips from top Leaving Cert performers!

This accounts for the factors that influence the rate of reaction.

For a reaction to occur the reacting particles must collide with each other.

A collision only results in the formation of products if a certain minimum energy is exceeded in the collision - this is then described as an effective collision.

An effective collision: occurs when bonds are broken and new bonds are formed, bringing about the formation of products.

The rate of reaction depends on the number of e effective collisions per second between reacting particles.

buy leaving cert notes

Activation Energy: 

is the minimum energy that colliding particles must have for a reaction to occur. Denoted Ea.

Low activation energy means a faster rate. Conversely, high activation energy means a slower rate.

1. Temperature:
increased temperature means that the kinetic energy of the molecules increases. Therefore, more collisions occur and hence more effective collisions must occur.

2. Nature of the reactants:
covalent compounds have to break bonds to react and
therefore they need more energy and so they have a higher activation energy.

3. Particle size:
smaller particles have a larger surface area for more collisions to occur. Therefore, more e ective collisions will occur and hence they will reach the activation energy more rapidly.

4. Concentration:
greater concentration means more particles and therefore more collisions, and hence more e ective collisions. Thus, the activation energy is reached more rapidly.

5. Catalyst:
it provides an alternative pathway with a lower activation energy.

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